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North American SNJ "Texan"
Intermediate trainer US Navy

Aircraft Type

Intermediate trainer of US Navy


North American Aviation, Inc.


Radial 9-cylinder s.c., air-cooled, 1,340 cid


542 hp @ 2,200 rpm


4,158 lbs (empty)

Max Speed

205 mph


2 seat tandem (student-instructor)


The North American Aviation T-6 (SNJ) Texan was a single-engined advanced trainer aircraft used to train pilots of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), United States Navy (USN), Royal Air Force and other air forces of the British Commonwealth during World War II and into the 1970s. Designed by North American Aviation, the T-6 is known by a variety of designations depending on the model and operating air force. The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) and USAAF designated it as the AT-6, the US Navy as the SNJ, and British Commonwealth air forces, as the Harvard, which is the name best known by outside of the US. After 1962, US forces designated it the T-6. It remains a popular warbird aircraft used for airshow demonstrations and static displays. It has also been used many times to simulate the Japanese Mitsubishi Zero in movies depicting World War II in the Pacific.


The Texan originated from the North American NA-16 prototype (first flown on April 1, 1935) which, modified as the NA-26, was submitted as an entry for a USAAC "Basic Combat" aircraft competition in March, 1937. The first model went into production and 180 were supplied to the USAAC as the BC-1 and 400 to the RAF as the Harvard I. The US Navy received 16 modified aircraft, designated the SNJ-1, and a further 61 as the SNJ-2 with a different engine.

The BC-1 was the production version of the NA-26 prototype, with retractable tail wheel landing gear and the provision for armament, a two-way radio, and the 550 hp (410 kW) R-1340-47 engine as standard equipment. Production versions included the BC-1 (Model NA-36) with only minor modifications (177 built), of which 30 were modified as BC-1I instrument trainers; the BC-1A (NA-55) with airframe revisions (92 built); and a single BC-1B with a modified wing center-section.

Three BC-2 aircraft were built before the shift to the "advanced trainer" designation, AT-6, which was equivalent to the BC-1A. The differences between the AT-6 and the BC-1 were new outer wing panels with a swept forward trailing edge, squared-off wingtips and a triangular rudder, producing the canonical Texan silhouette. After a change to the rear of the canopy, the AT-6 was designated the Harvard II for RAF/RCAF orders and 1,173 were supplied by purchase or Lend Lease, mostly operating in Canada as part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.

Next came the AT-6A which was based on the NA-77 design and was powered by the Pratt & Whitney R-1340-49 Wasp radial engine. The USAAF received 1,549 and the US Navy 270 (as the SNJ-3). The AT-6B was built for gunnery training and could mount a .30 in machine gun on the forward fuselage. It used the R-1340-AN-1 engine, which was to become the standard for the remaining T-6 production. Canada's Noorduyn Aviation built an R-1340-AN-1-powered version of the AT-6A, which was supplied to the USAAF as the AT-16 (1,500 aircraft) and the RAF/RCAF as the Harvard IIB (2,485 aircraft), some of which also served with the Fleet Air Arm and Royal Canadian Navy.

In late 1937 Mitsubishi purchased two NA-16s as technology demonstrators and possibly a license to build more. However, the aircraft developed by Watanabe/Kyushu as the K10W1 (Allied code name Oak) bore no more than a superficial resemblance to the North American design. It featured a full monocoque fuselage as opposed to the steel tube fuselage of the T-6 and NA-16 family of aircraft, as well as being of smaller dimensions overall and had no design details in common with the T-6. It was used in very small numbers by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1942 onwards. After the war the Japanese Air Self Defense Force operated Texans.

The NA-88 design resulted in 2,970 AT-6C Texans and 2,400 as the SNJ-4. The RAF received 726 of the AT-6C as the Harvard IIA. Modifications to the electrical system produced the AT-6D (3,713 produced) and SNJ-5 (1,357 produced). The AT-6D, redesignated the Harvard III, was supplied to the RAF (351 aircraft) and Fleet Air Arm (564 aircraft). The AT-6G (SNJ-7) involved major advancements including a full-time hydraulic system and a steerable tail wheel and persisted into the 1950s as the USAF advanced trainer.

Subsequently the NA-121 design with a completely clear rearmost section on the canopy, gave rise to 25 AT-6F Texans for the USAAF and 931, as the SNJ-6 for the US Navy. The ultimate version, the Harvard 4, was produced by Canada Car and Foundry during the 1950s, and supplied to the RCAF, USAF and Bundeswehr.

The total number of all variant types manufactured varies greatly. There were some 15,495 to 20,110 advanced trainers (AT-6/SNJ/T-6/Harvard/etc.) built by North American Aviation between 1938 and 1954.


Specifications SNJ "Texan"
Bureau of Aeronautics Navy Department
General characteristics
Crew:   Two place tandem (student and instructor)
Length:   29 ft (8.84 m)
Wingspan:   42 ft (12.81 m)
Height:   11 ft 8 in (3.57 m)
Wing area:   253.7 ft² (23.6 m²)
Empty weight:   4,158 lb (1,886 kg)
Gross weight:   5,617 lb (2,548 kg)
Fuel:   111 gal, 2 tanks, wing, 91/96 oct
Electronics:   12v (SNJ-4), 24v (SNJ-5,-6)
Powerplant:   1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1051 Wasp radial engine, 600 hp (450 kW)
Propellers:   2-blade, 9 ft dia, Hamilton-Standard, controllable pitch
Top speed:   208 mph at 5,000 ft (335 km/h at 1,500 m)
Cruise speed:   145 mph (233 km/h)
Range:   730 miles (1,175 km)
Service ceiling:   24,200 ft (7,400 m)
Rate of climb:   1,200 ft/min (6.1 m/s)
Wing loading:   22.2 lb/ft² (108 kg/m²)
Power/mass:   0.11 hp/lb (kW/kg)
Aircraft silhouette
North American Aviation

Engine Specifications

Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S1H1-G "Wasp"

General Specs    
Type:   Nine-cylinder (single-row) supercharged air-cooled
radial piston engine
Bore:   5.75 in (146 mm)
Stroke:   5.75 in (146 mm)
Displacement:   1,344 in3 (22 L)
Diameter:   51.75 in (1.314 m)
Dry weight:   930 lb (422 kg)
Valvetrain:   Two overhead valves per cylinder
Supercharger:   1 stage, 1 speed, centrifugal type, 1:10 step-up
Reduction gear:   3:2
Fuel system:   Two-barrel Stromberg carburetor
Fuel type:   91/96 octane
Oil system:    
Cooling system:   Air-cooled
Power output:   600 hp (447 kW) at 2,250 rpm at 6,200 ft
Specific power:   0.45 hp/in³ (20.3 kW/L)
Compression ratio:   6:1
Fuel consumption:   0.44 lb/(hp h) (270 g/(kW h))
Oil consumption:   0.32 oz/(hp h) (12 g/(kW h))
Power/weight ratio:   0.65 hp/lb (1.05 kW/kg)
Pratt & Whitney
R-1340 "Wasp" Engine
The Wasp's displacement was 1,340 cu. in. A single row, air-cooled 9-cylinder radial design delivering 542 hp at 2,200 rpm. It weighed 805 pounds. Production totaled 34,966 engines.
Pratt & Whitney USA
Corporate logo


North American SNJ "Texan"

U.S. Navy models with "C" suffix were planes converted to deck landing trainers with tailhook arresting gear added. 
NJ-1 United States Navy specification advanced trainer powered with 550hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-6.
Some re-engined with later versions of R-1340. Similar to BT-9, (40 built).
SNJ-1 Similar to Harvard I, but with BC-1 wing center section, metal-covered fuselage and
late T-6 type wing, (16 built).
SNJ-2 Same as SNJ-1 but with a R-1340-56 engine and changes to carburetor and
oil cooler scoops, (61 built).
SNJ-3 Same as AT-6A, 270 built and 298 transferred from USAAC, (total "568" built).
SNJ-3C SNJ-3 converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear, (12 modified).
SNJ-4 Same as AT-6C, (2,401 built).
SNJ-4C SNJ-4s converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear.
SNJ-5 AT-6Ds transferred from the USAAC, (1,573 aircraft).
SNJ-5C SNJ-5s converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear.
SNJ-6 AT-6Fs transferred from the USAAF, (580 aircraft).
SNJ-7 Early models modified to T-6G standards in 1952.
SNJ-7B Armed variant of the SNJ-7.
SNJ-8 Order for 240 cancelled.

 SNJ Production

Model BuNo.       Built
SNJ-1 01552 - 01567 = 16
SNJ-2 02008 - 02043
" 02548 - 02572 = 61
SNJ-3 06755 - 07024
" 01771 - 01976
" 05435 - 05526 = 568
SNJ-4 05527 - 05674
" 09063 - (1 only)
" 09817 - 10316
" 26427 - 27851
" 51350 - 51676 = 2,401
SNJ-5 43638 - 44037
" 51677 - 52049
" 84819 - 85093
" 90582 - 91106 = 1,573
SNJ-6 111949 - 112528 = 580
SNJ-8 137246 - 137485 = 240
Total = 5,199


SNJ-1 parked bp 1st SNJ-1 ever
SNJ-1 b/n1552 first of 16 produced ca.1940 Descriptive Arrangement SNJ-1 b/n1552 first flight ca.1940
3 students SNJ-6 parked
 SNJ-1 b/n 1566 (15th of 16) ca. 1940 SNJ-2 cadets NAS Pensacola ca.1942 SNJ-6
cadets 1 2
Group of cadets NAS Corpus Christi, TX SNJ cadet NAS Corpus Christi, TX SNJ cadet NAS Corpus Christi, TX
mechs waves wash
SNJ mechanic Kingsville Corpus Christi Nov 1942 WAVEs NAAS Whiting Field, Pensacola WAVEs SNJ (camouflaged) NOTC Jacksonville
SNJ-3s CC 1942-43 tail assy SNJs 3 color
SNJ-3s NAS Corpus Christi ca.1942-43 Early prototype (NA-32) tail assembly SNJ-3s ca.1942-43
SNJ-3 1942 JAX SNJ-4 1945 SNJ-4 1943 NAA Plant
SNJ-3 parked at NAS Jacksonville, FL 1942 SNJ-4 HQ Sqd FAW-4 ca.1944-45 SNJ-4 Gen. Inspector of Naval Aircraft 1943
SNJ-4 1943 ca SNJ-4 1942 ca SNJ-4 1943 ca
SNJ-4 NAS Corpus Christi ca.1943 SNJ-4 doing a "wingover" ca.1942 SNJ-4 NAS Corpus Christi Mar 1943
fuselage cockpit controls
Early prototype (NA-32) fuselage Cockpit of Harvard (AT-6/SNJ variant) Early prototype (NA-32) rear cockpit
Carrier Qualification with SNJ's on Lake Michigan 1942-45
snjs launch deck
SNJ-3Cs start USS Wolverine ca.1942 SNJ-5C launching USS Sable 1945 SNJ trapping on USS Sable 1943
toff nose dn t-o
SNJ-3C launch USS Wolverine 26-Apr-1943 SNJ-3C mishap USS Wolverine 1943 SNJ-3C launch USS Wolverine 02-Nov-1942
parked Timberlake 2
SNJ-3Cs parked USS Wolverine 1942 USS Sable LSO/Pilot 1943-44 SNJs USS Monterey 1953

Other Images 

snj-4 1944 CASU 1945ca SNJs formation 9 1942ca
SNJ-4 HQ Sqd FAW-14 NAS San Diego 1944 SNJ-4 at Atlantic City ca.1944-45 SNJs ca.1942
SNJ-5s two 1949ca 2277 SNJ-4 1942
SNJ-5 NAS Pensacola ca.1949 SNJ-6 "Texan" US Navy trainer (May 2010) SNJ-4 NAS Alameda Nov 1942
SNJ-4 2013 SNJ-5 2013 nose SNJ-4 2013 Pensacola
SNJ-4 in Pensacola livery ca.2013 SNJ-4 low pass ca.2013 (by unknown) SNJ-4 landing ca.2013 (by unknown)

AirExpo at Flying Cloud Airport - Eden Prairie, MN

1 2 3
SNJs in formation at AirExpo 2016 (By SAS) SNJs in formation at AirExpo 2016 (By SAS) SNJ at AirExpo 2016 (By SAS)
4 5 6
Two SNJs at AirExpo 2016 (By SAS) SNJ-6 at AirExpo 2017 (By SAS) SNJ-6 at AirExpo 2017 (By SAS)
7 8 9
SNJ-4 at AirExpo 2017 (By SAS) SNJ-4 at AirExpo 2017 (By SAS) SNJ-4 at AirExpo 2017 (By SAS)
eng canopy 2 snj
SNJ-4 at AirExpo 2017 (By SAS) SNJ-4 at AirExpo 2017 (By SAS) AT-6D &  SNJ-4 at AirExpo 2017 (By SAS)
4a 4e f4d
SNJ & AT-6 trainers AirExpo 2017 (By SAS) SNJ & AT-6 trainers AirExpo 2017 (By SAS) SNJ & AT-6 trainers AirExpo 2017 (By SAS)

U.S. Military Aircraft Insignias

(Roundels by year)